The Vietnamese State has worked to ensure that all ethnic groups in Vietnam are equal and this right is stipulated by laws.

Law on equality for ethnic groups

The right to equality among ethnic groups has been stated in Vietnam’s Constitutions. The 2013 Constitution stipulates “The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a unified nation of all ethnicities living together in the country of Vietnam. All the ethnicities are equal and united and respect and assist one another for mutual development; all acts of discrimination against and division of the ethnicities are prohibited.”

According to the latest Constitution, “the State shall implement a policy of comprehensive development and create the conditions for the minority ethnicities to fully utilize their internal strengths and develop together with the country.”


The right of ethnic equality has been institutionalized. The National Assembly Council of Ethnic Minorities is in charge of giving recommendations to the legislature and overseeing the implementation of ethnic policies, programs, and plans. The government’s Committee for Ethnic Minorities Affairs is a ministry-level agency.  

In Vietnam, ethnic minority citizens enjoy the right to participate in the political system, state management, candidacy to the National Assembly, and the People’s Councils. The proportion of ethnic deputies among the total number of deputies is always higher than the proportion of ethnic people among the national population.

Over the past 4 National Assembly tenures, the proportion has been between 15% and 17%.

Support for ethnic minority people

Numerous incentives have been adopted to help ethnic people exercise their rights, improve their living standard, and narrow their development gap. The most notable are the Government Action Program 122 on Ethnic Minority Affairs, the 2008 Government Resolution on Sustainable Poverty Reduction, Program 135 on Socio-economic Development in the Most Disadvantaged Communes, and Decision 132 on Investment in Infrastructure and Allocation of Land for Production and Residence.

The government has helped poor families obtain housing and prioritized the training of ethnic cadres. These incentives have paid off. Poor ethnic households now account for only 6% of all ethnic households.

All communes have clinics and medical workers. All districts have medical centers and doctors. The rate of malnourished children under 5 years of age have fallen to below 25%. Diseases which used to plague areas inhabited by ethnic minorities have been prevented.

Citizens of ethnic minorities today enjoy full human rights prescribed by the Vietnamese Constitution and law and better conditions to thrive and contribute to national development.

Source: VOV